The Republic of Florence (Repubblica Fiorentina), or the Florentine Republic, was a city-state that was centered on the city of Florence, located in modern Tuscany, Italy.
The republic was founded in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon Margravine Matilda's death. The Florentines formed a commune in Matilda's place. The republic was ruled by a council, known as the signoria. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere (titular ruler of the city), who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members.
The republic has a chequered history of coups and counter coups against various factions. The Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434, upon Cosimo de' Medici's counter coup against the faction that sent him into exile the previous year. The Medici kept control of Florence until 1494. Giovanni de' Medici (later Pope Leo X) re-conquered the republic in 1512.